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Prostate cancer

More than 3300 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year in Ireland. This means that 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime.

Prostate cancer can be treated with active surveillance, external beam radiotherapy, hormone therapy, brachytherapy, surgery, chemotherapy and watchful waiting.

On this page:

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is when the cells of your prostate gland grow in an abnormal way to form a lump (tumour). Prostate cancer is a common cancer in Ireland. Around 3,300 men are diagnosed with it each year. 

Early (localised) prostate cancer: Cancer found only within the prostate gland. 

Locally spread prostate cancer: Cancer that has broken through the capsule (covering) of the prostate or has spread outside the gland to nearby tissues, such as seminal vesicles, lymph nodes, or your back passage (rectum). 

Metastatic (advanced) prostate cancer: This is when prostate cancer cells have spread and are affecting other parts of your body, away from the prostate gland. The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is your bones.  Read more about metastatic prostate cancer.

Although prostate cancer is common, it is very successfully treated for the majority.

What is the prostate and what does it do?

The prostate gland is a small gland about the size of a walnut. It sits at the base of the bladder and in front of the rectum (back passage). The tube that drains urine from the bladder (urethra) runs down through the centre of the prostate gland, letting urine flow out of the body through the penis. 

The prostate makes a thick white fluid that mixes with sperm to make semen. It also makes a protein called PSA or prostate specific antigen.  

The PSA protein turns semen into liquid. Some of this protein can pass into the bloodstream. When doctors check the prostate gland, they often measure levels of this protein in your blood. This is called the PSA test.

If your PSA level is higher than normal, it can sometimes be a sign of prostate cancer. However it can also be a sign of a less serious condition like a prostate or urinary infection.

prostate gland diagram

More information about prostate cancer treatment

Treatment for prostate cancer includes active surveillance, external beam radiotherapy, hormone therapy, brachytherapy, surgery, chemotherapy and watchful waiting. For specific treatment information use the links below.

Looking for support?

Our cancer support section contains information and advice on coping with cancer for diagnosed patients and their loved ones.

Publications about prostate cancer
Downloadable booklets and factsheets
Prostate cancer leaflet
Prostate Cancer - What You Should Know leaflet
This leaflet gives you an overview of prostate cancer, what affects your risk, how it is diagnosed and more.

For more information

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