Woman in hospital

Vulval cancer

Vulval cancer affects about 70 people in Ireland each year.

Cancer of the vulva is treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, depending on the type.

What is vulval cancer?

Cancer of the vulva is when the cells in the vulva change and grow in an abnormal way. A group of these cancer cells can form a tumour. It can develop in any of the external sex organs that make up the vulva, but it’s most commonly seen in the outer lips (labia majora) and inner lips (labia minora). It occurs less commonly in the clitoris.

Vulval cancer is a slow-growing cancer and may develop over years. There are different types of vulval cancer, some of which are very rare.

Cancer of the vulva is a rare cancer. In Ireland, there are about 70 cases a year. The risk of vulval cancer increases with age, but it can happen at any age.

What is the vulva and what does it do?

The vulva is the area of skin between a woman’s legs. It refers to the external sex organs in women.

The vulva is made up of:

  • Two outer lips (labia majora)
  • Two inner lips (labia minora)
  • The clitoris at the front of the vulva. It helps women reach sexual climax
  • The urethra – the tube that drains urine
  • The vagina
  • The perineum – the area of skin between the vulva and the anus (back passage

All these female sex organs can be seen outside the body. In the groin area at the top of each leg are lymph glands. These are part of the lymphatic system that fights infection.


We use the term ‘woman / women’ in our vulval cancer information but we understand that not everyone who has a vulva identifies as a woman.

Whoever you are, wherever you come from, we are here for you. For confidential advice, information and support, contact our Support Line on Freephone 1800 200 700.

More information about vulval cancer treatment

Treatment for vulval cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For more information about treatments for vulval cancer, visit our treatment page. For specific treatment information use the links below.

Coping with vulval cancer treatment and side-effects

Looking for support?

Our cancer support section contains information and advice on coping with cancer for diagnosed patients and their loved ones.

For more information

Icon: Phone


1800 200 700

Icon: Email